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Application of heat pump dryer in drying walnuts

2017-12-03
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Overview of walnut drying:

Walnuts, which are native to the Near East, are also known as walnuts, citrons, and almonds, cashews, and hazelnuts. They are also called the "four largest dried fruits" in the world. It can be eaten raw, fried, or squeezed with oil, prepared pastry, candy, etc., not only delicious, but also has high nutritional value. Its footprint spans almost all parts of the world, mainly in many parts of the Americas, Europe and Asia. In addition to the United States, its output is pushed to China. Walnuts are called "Hercules Food", "nutrient-rich nuts", and "educational fruits" abroad; they enjoy the reputations of "Long live", "Longevity Fruit", and "Treasures of Treasure" in China. Its superior brain-building effect and rich nutritional value have been respected by more and more people.

In 1972, the Cishan cultural site was discovered. In the gray pits excavated at the Cishan site, tree seed piles were found at the bottom of the two pits, and hazelnuts, Xiaoyepu and walnuts can be identified. Walnuts are today's walnuts. In the past, walnuts were thought to have been introduced to the mainland when Zhangye of the Han Dynasty passed through the Western Regions. The unearthed walnuts at the Cishan site have confirmed that the area was planted more than 7,000 years ago.

Nutritional value of walnuts:

1. Walnuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Regular consumption of walnuts will not only increase blood sugar, but also reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine. It is suitable for patients with high blood lipids, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Walnuts contain a large amount of fat, which can Intestinal moisturizing, treatment of constipation, can make people who lose weight gain weight.

2. As long as the fatty acid in walnut is linoleic acid, it is an essential fatty acid for the human body and an ideal skin cosmetic agent for the human body.

3. Walnuts are rich in vitamin B and vitamin E, which can age cells, have brain health, enhance memory and delay aging.

4. Walnut kernel contains linoleic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. It is an ideal skin cosmetic for the human body. It is often used to moisturize the skin and beard hair, and has the function of preventing premature whitening and shedding of hair.

5. Walnut kernel also contains a variety of trace elements needed by the human body. It is an important adjuvant for proprietary Chinese medicines. It has the functions of smoothing the blood, relieving cough and phlegm, and moistening the lungs and kidneys. When you feel tired, chew some walnuts to relieve fatigue and stress

The walnut drying process commonly used at present is mainly divided into intelligent or semi-capable mechanical baking equipment and self-built walnut drying process. The mechanical automatic baking equipment adopts the smokeless baking design; the self-built baking kiln is divided into two types: smoked baking kiln and smokeless baking kiln. No matter what kind of equipment is used for baking, the changes in the baking temperature are: low → high → low. The temperature and time of each stage are roughly:
Low temperature ———————— -------------------— High temperature —————————————————— Low temperature holding temperature : 35-40 ° C; 40-50 ° C; 30-35 ° C;
Baking time: 0-5 hours 5-30 hours 35-50 hours Introduce several baking walnut drying processes Walnut drying process:
1. The baking method of the smoke-free self-built baking kiln adopts the heating method of roasting dragon heating, which can roast about 1.5 tons of fresh stone fruits each time. First, check if the grilled dragon has leaked air or smoke. If you find that the leaked air or smoke is leaking, you must deal with it before baking. The peeled walnuts should be promptly put into a kiln (furnace) and stacked on the grill (the pile of stone fruit should not exceed 50 centimeters in thickness), and immediately start a fire. 0 to 5 hours after entering the furnace, the furnace temperature is controlled at 35 ° C to 40 ° C; the furnace temperature is controlled at 40 ° C to 45 ° C at the 5th to 15th hour; the furnace temperature is controlled to 40 ° C to 50 ° C at the 15th to 30th hour; -50 hours furnace temperature is controlled at 30 ℃ —35 ℃, until the walnut is dry and comes out. When baking, if the oven temperature is too high, the fire should be controlled in time to reduce the temperature of the oven; 5 to 15 hours after entering the oven, all the dehumidification equipment should be turned on and the moisture should be drained as soon as possible; walnut drying process walnut drying process walnut drying process to avoid The fire is too intense in the early stage, and the stone fruit should be heated gradually and simultaneously at the same time, so that the internal drainage of walnut kernels will be uniform and thorough, preventing walnut kernels from yellowing. Walnut drying process In the early stages of the walnut baking process, in order to ensure a balanced discharge of water from walnut kernels, it should not be turned.

2. Baking method of household walnut oven “New household walnut smoke-free baking room” is a new type of walnut drying equipment with intelligent temperature control and smoke-free pollution. Walnut drying technology. Walnut baking equipment. The amount is about 300kg. For the convenience of farmers, the baking temperature is set to about 45 ° C. During the entire baking process, you only need to manually add fuel such as firewood and coal, automatically control the temperature, and dehumidify in time. About 10 minutes before baking, fire and start to preheat the baking room. After that, the freshly peeled nuclei are evenly loaded on each layer of iron sieve in the baking room and continuously heated. Close the oven door, open the cold air window and the moisture exhaust window during the baking process. The baking time is about 36 hours.

Walnut dryer drying process:
The first stage-timely dehumidification in the warehouse (30-35 ℃ → 12-15 hours)
Within 8 hours after peeling the green skin, it will be put into the warehouse for dehumidification and baking. The dehumidification temperature is 30-35 ° C and the baking time is 12-15 hours. The water on the surface of the nut shell loses water and the color is changed from dark brown to brown.
The second stage-fixed color initial roasting (50 ℃ → 12 hours)
After the dehumidification is finished, it enters the fixed color initial roasting, the temperature rises to 50 ° C, and the baking time is 12 hours. The completion of drying is characterized by the absence of moisture in the aftermath of the stone fruit.
The third stage-Wenhuo dried kernels (30 ℃ → 16 hours)
After the color-fixing and drying period ends, the dried kernel enters the dried kernel period. The temperature is controlled at 30 ° C for about 16 hours. At this time, the water content of stone fruit reaches about 10%.
After the dried kernel phase, the fire can be discarded, and the stone fruit on the oven can be satisfactorily covered with a sackcloth bag, and kept warm for several hours, so that the moisture in the upper stone fruit will continue to volatilize, and the upper and lower stone fruit will dry relatively evenly.

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